Simon Voelker, Chat Wacharamanotham, Jan Borchers
In Proceedings of CHI '13, ACM, 745 – 754
Publication year: 2013



Indirect touch systems combine a horizontal touch input surface with a vertical display for output. While this division is ergonomically superior to simple direct-touch displays for many tasks, users are no longer looking at their hands when touching. This requires the system to support an intermediate “tracking” state that lets users aim at objects without triggering a selection, similar to the hover state in mouse-based UIs. We present an empirical analysis of several interaction techniques for indirect touch systems to switch to this intermediate state, and derive design recommendations for incorporating it into such systems.

The Team

This is a research project by Simon VoelkerChat Wacharamanotham, and Jan Borchers from the Media Computing Group. It is funded in part through the German B-IT Foundation.


 author = {Voelker, Simon and Wacharamanotham, Chat and Borchers, Jan},
 title = {{An Evaluation of State Switching Methods for Indirect Touch Systems}},
 booktitle = {Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
 series = {CHI '13},
 year = {2013},
 isbn = {978-1-4503-1899-0},
 location = {Paris, France},
 pages = {745--754},
 numpages = {10},
 url = {},
 doi = {10.1145/2470654.2470759},
 acmid = {2470759},
 publisher = {ACM},
 address = {New York, NY, USA},
 keywords = {indirect-touch, three-state model},